萨摩亚独立国（英语：The Independent State of Samoa），简称萨摩亚，原名西萨摩亚，位于太平洋南部，萨摩亚群岛西部，由乌波卢（Upolu）、萨瓦伊（Savaii）两个主岛和附近的马诺诺、阿波利马、努乌泰雷、努乌卢瓦、纳木瓦、法努瓦塔普、努乌萨菲埃、努乌洛帕等八个小岛（Manono、Apolima、Nuutele、Nuulua、Namua、Fanuatapu、Nuusafee、Nuulopa）组成。
The independent state of Samoa (English: the independent state of Samoa), formerly known as Western Samoa, is located in the south of the Pacific Ocean and in the west of the Samoan Islands. It is composed of two main islands of Upolu and savaii, and nearby Manono, apolima, nuutaire, nuoluwa, namua, fanouatapu, nuusafie Nuuropa and other eight small islands (Manono, apolima, nuutele, nuulua, namua, fanuatapu, nuusafee, nuulopa).
Samoan is a country with a strong traditional culture of Polynesia. Its social structure is still tribal. Each tribe is a patriarchal clan. The land distribution right of the tribe is in the hands of Matai, who distributes it to each household for farming. Samoa is a multi religious country, most of its residents believe in Christianity.
Christian Church of Samoa
A corner of Stevenson's former residence
In the South Pacific, there is a Samoan archipelago. The name of Samoa comes from the French navigator Bougainville. In 1768, while traveling around the world, Bougainville came to the Samoan Islands. He was amazed to see that the Samoans were good at making canoes and sailing skillfully on the sea. He called this place "Samoan Archipelago", which means navigator archipelago.
The name is still used today. The Samoan Islands are now divided into East and west parts. The East Island is called East Samoan and belongs to the United States; The western island is called Western Samoa, which is now the independent state of Samoa. Therefore, the independent state of Samoa was originally also known as the independent state of Western Samoa. The independent state of Samoa is composed of two main islands, namely, Sawai and Upolu, and eight small islands, with a land area of 2934 square kilometers and a water area of 120000 square kilometers.
The Samoan Islands are volcanic islands. Most of the territory is covered by forests and belongs to tropical rainforest climate. It is warm and pleasant throughout the year. The dry season is from May to October, and the rainy season is from November to April. The average annual temperature is 28 ℃, and the capital is Apia. There are about 200000 people living in Samoa and 200000 people working in Australia and New Zealand.
As a South Pacific country, also located in the tropics and close to the equator, Samoa is known as the "Pearl" and "paradise on earth" in the South Pacific, also known as the country of coconut and cocoa and volcanic islands, with distinctive cultural characteristics.
First, the first country to see the sunrise. Samoa is located near the international date line. In order to avoid the confusion of dates, the 1884 international longitude conference stipulated an international date change line. This date changing line is located on the 180 ° meridian in the Pacific Ocean, which serves as the dividing line between "today" and "yesterday" on earth.
In order to avoid the existence of two kinds of dates in a country, the actual international date line is not a straight line, but a broken line. It starts from the north pole, passes through the Bering Strait, the Pacific Ocean and ends at the South Pole. The first is in the eastern part of Russia, that is, the Bering Strait, protruding eastward; The second is located in Alaska and Aleutian Islands of the United States, protruding westward; The third is in the South Pacific, protruding eastward. Therefore, the South Pacific countries have the right to choose between East and west of the international change line. Samoa began to choose to be located in the East 12. It was the first country in the world to see the sunrise and start a new day. In 1892, the Samoan government adjusted its time zone from the East 12 to the West 12 according to the suggestion of an American businessman, so as to facilitate trade activities with American and European businessmen. In this way, Samoa became the last country in the world to see the sunrise and end the day. The first country to see the sunrise was Tonga. In 2011, the Samoan government decided to move its country back from the West 12 to the East 12. The government of Samoa explained that the decision was to promote trade with neighboring Australia and New Zealand. "When we do business with New Zealand and Australia, we lose two working days a week," the Prime Minister of Samoa said. When we were on Friday, it was Saturday in New Zealand, and when we went to church on Sunday, Sydney and Brisbane in Australia were already at work. The adjustment to the west of the international date change line will bring the time closer to New Zealand and Australia, the major trading partners of Samoa, so as to facilitate bilateral trade. " In this way, Samoa returned to its position as the first country to see the sunrise. Of course, in 2011, there was no December 30 in Samoa. People born on this day can't have a birthday on this day of the year.
Second, unique precious resources. Samoan's unique geographical environment and climate conditions have bred unique resources, some of which are treasures in the world. Samoa is one of the main producing areas of tuna. Tuna is one of the most precious fish resources, which is highly praised as a nutritious and healthy modern food. This kind of fish has low fat, low calorie and high-quality protein, so it is more and more favored by modern people, and the price is very expensive. Tuna is a warm water migratory fish in the ocean, mainly distributed in the low and middle latitudes, concentrated in the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean. The sea area of Samoa is rich in tuna, which attracts many countries to fish here, with an annual catch of about 7000 tons. Samoa is rich in a kind of bread tree. The fruit of this kind of bread tree is green on the surface, and the flesh inside is light yellow, rich in starch. It is usually eaten by steaming, baking and frying. It tastes like bread, soft and delicious. There are bread trees in other places, but the fruit is not as delicious as that in Samoa. Samoan does not produce food. The staple food of the island's residents is bread tree fruit and taro. It was only in recent years that the residents began to eat imported rice and flour. A bread tree can bear 200 fruits a year, and it can bear fruit all the year round. Therefore, 12 breadfruit trees are planted at home, and the fruits of breadfruit trees can be picked every month. In Samoa, there is a popular saying: "eat by a tree, dress by a piece of cloth." A tree is a bread tree; Cloth is made of mulberry bark. Samoans drink water with coconut trees. There are coconut trees all over the place. People climb up the trees and cut down the coconuts, which are natural and sweet drinks. In Samoa, there is a kind of fruit called Noni fruit, which is the fruit of a tropical shrub growing in the South Pacific Islands. Noni fruit is rich in nutrients of human cells, which has obvious effect on improving human immunity, enhancing energy metabolism of human cells, improving antioxidant activity and delaying heart failure. Thousands of years ago, people living in the South Pacific Islands discovered the wonderful function of noniko in strengthening their health. Noni fruit is also known as "after the plant" and "the gift of God". Nowadays, all over the world have a special preference for the noni juice in Samoa. More and more people buy this kind of juice through various channels for health care.
Third, unique folk customs. One is traditional cooking. In Samoa, people's cooking is very traditional and natural. Historically, the Samoan diet was very primitive, with no pots and pans at all. First, they burned a pile of fist sized stones red with wood, and wrapped fish, breadfruit, taro, banana and meat in three layers of coconut leaves. When the stones were hot, they buried bags of food in the stones. The stones were covered with wet coconut leaves, which could prevent the heat in the stones to the maximum extent. After 45 minutes, they took out the food, Ready to eat. The food made in this way has a pure and beautiful taste and unique flavor. Second, traditional clothing. Historically, Samoans had no clothes, just a piece of "cloth" around their waists. This cloth is made of mulberry bark. First, the mulberry bark is peeled off from the branches with a knife, and then the mulberry bark is continuously thinned, widened and softened with a shell dipped in water. Then the mulberry bark is as soft as cloth and white as paper. In this kind of cloth, brown and black natural pigments are used to draw patterns, and white space is left, which are three colors. Then mulberry bark is sewn together to form a piece of cloth. Now, Samoans no longer use mulberry bark cloth, but both men and women wear shirts on their upper body and skirts on their lower body, and all wear slippers to travel. Even on formal occasions. Samoan women love to wear flowers. They often wear a small flower between their ears to indicate whether they are married or not. If it is inserted in the right ear, it means married. If it is inserted in the left ear, it means unmarried. Some men also wear flowers occasionally, with a unique style. Third, traditional architecture“ As a traditional house of Samoans, "fare" is very unique in the world. This kind of house, called "with roof but without wall", is very suitable for tropical climate. The roof is supported by several wooden columns, and there are no walls on all sides. Grass curtains can be hung between the wooden columns. When there is no rain, the grass curtain is rolled up, and the wind comes from all sides of the house, which is very cool and comfortable; When it rains, the curtain can be put down to block the rain. Houses usually use bread trunks to make wooden columns, which can last for 50 years. It should be said that the "Falei" building uses mortise and tenon structure, without any nails, which is very similar to the principle of Chinese wood structure building. Fourth, traditional tattoos. Samoans still have the custom of tattooing. Men get tattoos from the waist to the knee, women get tattoos on the thighs, as well as on the face and hands. There are special tattoo masters in Samoa who read something similar to scriptures in their mouths when they do tattoos. Whether to tattoo is generally voluntary choice. Nowadays, fewer and fewer people choose tattoos voluntarily, about 15% of the population choose tattoos. Fifth, traditional dance. Samoa is a nation where everyone sings and dances. Sword fire dance is the most distinctive national dance in Samoa. More than 1000 years ago, in order to resist the invasion of foreign enemies, Samoans cut down hard wood trees, cut them into sticks, and installed knives and hooks as a powerful weapon. After the end of the war, people dipped pine resin on both ends of the stick, lit a fire, and danced heartily to celebrate the victory. This ancient cultural activity gradually evolved into a unique dance form in Samoa. Dancers are usually strong men, holding one or two burning sticks, making various fast or thrilling movements, so that the flame forms different shapes and makes the audience dumbfounded. Now, Samoan holds a sword fire dance competition every year to inherit and promote this long-standing national culture. This dance is often invited to perform all over the world.
It is worth mentioning that Samoans have extraordinary motor cells. Samoans are obsessed with rugby, and the Samoan national rugby team has entered the world's top eight. Many of the rugby teams in Australia and New Zealand are Samoans. The current Prime Minister Tuilaepa also loves sports. He personally participated in the archery competition of the 13th South Pacific Games held in Samoa in 2007 and won the silver medal.
Fourth, the historical origin of Chinese laborers and Samoa. Since the second half of the 19th century, rubber, coconut, cocoa and banana plantations have been profitable. German colonists began to import Chinese laborers from China in 1903. From 1903 to 1913, German colonists recruited 3868 contracted Chinese laborers from China. When the first World War broke out in 1914, New Zealand immediately sent expeditionary forces to occupy German Samoa. First, it repatriated Chinese workers, and then, with the shortage of labor, it recruited Chinese workers from China. From 1920 to 1934, 3116 contracted Chinese laborers were recruited.
The arrival of a large number of Chinese workers solved the problem of labor shortage in Samoa's plantations. Moreover, Chinese workers are hardworking, labor-intensive and efficient, and have made great contributions to the economic development of Samoa. But at the same time, Chinese workers were treated inhumanely. They work more than 10 hours a day, and their wages are very low. They can't celebrate Chinese festivals. They only have two days off every month. They don't pay for holidays or illness. Not only are their working conditions bad, but also their basic rights and dignity are deprived. The planter didn't call the Chinese laborers by name, but called them by "coolie number". They are often punished or flogged for the crimes they don't need to have, and even if they bow to their masters not low enough, they are also listed as "misconduct". In order to improve the conditions of Chinese laborers, in 1908, the Qing government sent special personnel to Samoa to negotiate with the colonial authorities, and set up a consulate in Western Samoa in 1909. Lin Junchao served as the first consul and returned to China in 1920.
Some Chinese workers married local women and had children. Despite the language barrier and the colonial authorities' ban on intermarriage between Chinese and Samoans, there are still cases of marriage and birth. When the colonial authorities repatriated China, many families were separated. Today, there are a large number of Samoans of Chinese descent in Samoa. It is said that almost all the large-scale families and businesses in Samoa are of Chinese origin. If the name of an enterprise begins with a (a), it is likely to be of Chinese origin, because the early Chinese immigrants to Samoa are all called "a Mou", such as a Mao, a Hua, a CAI, etc.
Fifth, the final destination of the famous writer Stevenson. Robert Louis Stevenson is a famous British writer in the 19th century. He was born in Scotland. He has been interested in literature since he was a child. In his life, he wrote a lot of essays, travel notes, essays, novels and poems. His representative works include the novels Treasure Island, Dr. incarnation, kidnapping, Katrina, etc., many of which have become treasures in the treasure house of English literature. Stevenson inherited lung disease from his mother, so he was always looking for a place to help treat lung disease. At the same time, he is also infatuated with the legends of islands and coasts. So, from 1880, he began his journey to the Pacific Ocean to find places beneficial to his health. It was during this journey that Stevenson completed the boy of barentry and the spirit in the bottle based on the island legend. After 1890, he, his wife, his mother, his wife's son and daughter settled in Apia, the capital of Samoa, bought 400 acres of land, named it vilima, and began to build the manor, where he spent the last five years of his life. He wrote a series of novels here. In 1894, in the last year of his life, he began to write "the will of Hermiston". Until December 3 of that year, he was still writing this novel. On that day, Stevenson, 44, died of a stroke and left his unfinished masterpiece "the will of Hermiston", which he said was the best work in his life. According to Stevenson's wish, his body was buried on the top of Vaea mountain overlooking the vast Pacific Ocean. He called it "paradise in the South Pacific".
Stevenson's former residence was built in 1890 and completed in 1892. Tall and spacious two-story mansion, all wooden structure, typical colonial architectural style, near the mountain and sea, full of lawns and exotic flowers and trees. In the living room on the ground floor, there are pictures of Stevenson, his family and local people on the walls. On the floor of the living room, there is a lion skin, which is a gift from his friend. There is a big restaurant on the ground floor. There is a hand-held sound player in it. There are more than ten logs beside it, with iron nails of different lengths and thicknesses embedded on it. This is the record of that time. Put it in the slot of the sound player, and shake the handle to make wonderful music. There is a large dining table in the dining room, where Stevenson died of a stroke. There is also a big safe in the dining room. It's more than one person tall. The iron door alone is more than 20 cm thick, and its weight can be imagined. It's something Stevenson used at the time. Upstairs, there are his study and bedroom, his mother's room, his wife's room, the original clothes she used to wear and the children's room. Upstairs, there is a special treatment room with a medicine cabinet, in which all kinds of Western medicine at that time are placed.
After Stevenson died, his former residence became the official residence of the governor and head of state of Samoa. In 1994, the Samoan government restored it in its original style and protected it as a memorial.