日本学生高考也祭拜文曲星吗


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中国的文神文曲星

Wenquxing, the God of literature in China


中日两国都有高考,高考压力也不相上下。唯一不同的是,中国大学都是公立学校,高考压力大是因为考生人数太多;而日本社会对文凭的重视程度不如中国,高考落榜或不参加高考依旧可能出人头地,但高考压力也大,这是因为日本是资本主义国家,公立大学收费低但极其有限,而私立大校学费极其昂贵。所以日本考生的家长在孩子高考前夕和中国家长一样,也去拜文神、文庙。日本的文神就是菅原道真,文庙就是天满宫。

Both China and Japan have college entrance examination, and the pressure of college entrance examination is equal. The only difference is that Chinese universities are all public schools, and the pressure of the college entrance examination is because there are too many candidates; However, Japanese society does not attach as much importance to diplomas as to China. Failing or not taking part in the college entrance examination may still lead to success, but the pressure of college entrance examination is also great. This is because Japan is a capitalist country, the fees of public universities are low but extremely limited, while the fees of private universities are extremely expensive. So the parents of Japanese examinees, like Chinese parents, go to worship the God of literature and Confucian temple on the eve of their children's college entrance examination. The God of literature in Japan is Naoto kanhara, and the Confucian temple is Tianman palace.


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日本考生

Japanese candidates


一、菅原道真家世

1、 The real family of kanhara


菅原道真出生于 845 年,此时的日本已经大化改新,但改新中的官制改革仅仅是将过去的世袭官职改个名称,实际上仍是上品无寒门,下品无世族。

Naoto Kan was born in 845. At that time, Japan had been reformed in Dahua, but the reform of the official system in the reform was just to change the name of the hereditary official position in the past. In fact, it was still the top grade without humble family and the bottom grade without hereditary family.


菅原家的祖上为土师氏,古代帮大王管理制作土器的师傅,以及朝廷进贡土器,也可以称为包工头。至菅原古人时代,正赶上日本大化改新,大和朝廷急需大量的儒学人才,菅原古人以会儒学、懂汉语得以晋升从五位下,任职文章博士,并受命以儒学为家学,世代传承。古人和古人之子都随遣唐使来过咱大唐。

The ancestors of Kan yuan's family were Tushi. They were the masters who helped the king to make earthenware in ancient times, and the imperial court paid tribute to earthenware. They can also be called contractors. In the era of kanyuan ancients, as Japan's Dahua reform was catching up, the Daiwa court was in urgent need of a large number of Confucian talents. Kanyuan ancients, who knew Confucianism and understood Chinese, were promoted from five to five, and were appointed to take Confucianism as their family learning and passed on from generation to generation. Both the ancients and their sons came to the Tang Dynasty with their envoys.


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遣唐使

kentoshi


古人的曾孙就是道真,道真出生时,菅原家的儒学已传了两代,家中学问风气浓厚,这就养成了道真极高的文化素养。

The great grandson of the ancients was Daozhen. When Daozhen was born, the Confucianism of the kanyuan family had been passed on for two generations, and there was a strong atmosphere of asking questions at home, which cultivated Daozhen's extremely high cultural quality.


二、道真的前半生

2、 The first half of Daozhen's life


清和天皇贞观四年,道真以家学得以步入朝堂,任文章生,相当于入了国子监。日本的国子监考试只是测水平,成绩只代表毕业后去哪任职,不及格也有官做。日本贞观九年,道真毕业后即授予从六位下、遥任地方官(虚衔)、下野权少掾,此后升从五位下、中央官(实权)、少辅。从五位以上的人,在平安时代称贵族,所以说,他是凭一己之力跻身贵族行列。

In the fourth year of emperor Zhenguan's reign in the Qing Dynasty, Daozhen learned from his family and entered the imperial court as a scholar, which was equivalent to entering the Imperial Academy. Japan's imperial college examination is just a test of the level, the results only represent where to work after graduation, and there are officials who fail. In the ninth year of Zhenguan in Japan, after graduating from Daozhen, he was awarded six local officials (nominal title) and five Central officials (real power) and Shaofu. From more than five people, he was called a noble in the Heian era. Therefore, he became a noble on his own.


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日本国子监

Imperial College of Japan


在仁和二年道真被贬地方以前,道真都在京城,可谓官运亨通,平步青云。这时期他的最高官品为从五位上。和中国六朝时期的官 N 代一样,年轻的道真每天也不务正业,不理政事,只负责饮酒、谈诗、论道,反正就是很潇洒。

In the second year of Renhe, before Daozhen was demoted, Daozhen was all in the capital. It can be said that Daozhen had a prosperous official career. During this period, his highest official rank was from the top five. Just like the official n generation of the Six Dynasties in China, the young Daozhen didn't pay attention to official business and political affairs every day. He was only responsible for drinking, talking about poetry and Taoism. Anyway, he was very smart.


六朝清谈

Talk about the Six Dynasties


仁和二年,道真被贬赞岐,这是他命运的转折点。古代日本极穷,全日本只有京城还像点样,地方上简直不是人待的,和贫民窟一样。换句话说,出了首都哪都是贫民窟。而赞岐在今天的四国,临近濑户内海,整天风吹日晒,凄苦的环境让这位贵族公子满腔怨愤。被贬期间,他终于觉悟了,一改往日的颓废,在玩味乡愁客愁的文学之余,开始考虑政务了。

In the second year of Renhe, Daozhen was demoted to praise Qi, which was the turning point of his fate. In ancient Japan, it was extremely poor. In Japan, only the capital was like a little bit. The place was not for people, just like a slum. In other words, outside the capital, there are slums everywhere. In today's four countries, near the inland sea of Seto, Zanqi is exposed to the wind and sunshine all day. The miserable environment makes this noble childe full of resentment. During his demotion, he finally realized that he had changed his old decadence and began to think about government affairs while pondering over the literature of homesickness and homesickness.


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菅原道真木雕

Wood carving by Daozhen kanhara


三、人生最高峰

3、 The peak of life


宇多天皇即位,改元宽平。宽平二年,道真归京。之后就振作精神,勤劳王事,加上家学 BUFF 的加持,能力可谓超群,受到了宇多天皇的喜爱。至宽平九年,短短 7 年,他就从一个从五位上的中等官被破格提拔为正三位中宫大夫,权大纳言;到醍醐天皇昌泰二年,道真更是被破格转任为仅次于太政大臣的右大臣,这个官职相当于实权宰相。

Emperor Yuduo ascended the throne and changed the yuan to KUANPING. In the second year of KUANPING, Daozhen returned to Beijing. After that, he cheered up and worked hard. With the blessing of family buff, his ability was excellent and he was loved by Emperor Yuduo. In the ninth year of KUANPING, in just seven years, he was promoted from a middle-ranking official of five rank to a middle-ranking official of three rank; In the second year of emperor Changtai's reign, Daozhen was transferred to the right minister, second only to the Minister of Taizheng, who was equivalent to the Prime Minister of real power.


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日本天皇

Emperor of Japan


道真从小贵族升至高品贵族,从一个闲职散官升至宰相,如果盘点日本平安时期的左、右大臣、大纳言名单就会发现,这种小官升宰相的情况是绝无仅有的。

Daozhen was promoted from a young nobleman to a high-quality nobleman, and from a casual official to a prime minister. If you check the list of left and right ministers and tanayan in the Heian period of Japan, you will find that this kind of promotion from a small official to a prime minister is unique.


道真在宇多天皇时期叱咤风云,但记载下来的他的政绩不多,功绩也主要是在一些文学、史学的编纂上,如《新编万叶集》、《聚类国史》、《三代实录》。道真在《三月三日、侍于雅院。赐侍臣曲水之饮、应制》中自称 " 长断诗臣作外臣 ",表明他对自己政治地位的定性,就是一个文学宰相,对政治干预能力有限,主要就是给朝廷歌功颂德、建设文化。

Daozhen was powerful in the period of emperor Yuduo, but there were few records of his achievements. His achievements were mainly in the compilation of literature and history, such as the new edition of Wanye collection, the history of the three dynasties, and the real records of the three dynasties. Daozhen is in March 3, serving the elegant courtyard. In the book "giving courtiers qushuizhiyin and Yingzhi", he called himself "changduan Shichen as a foreign minister", which showed that he was a literary prime minister with limited ability to intervene in politics, mainly to praise the imperial court and build culture.


道真唯一被明确记录下来的政治行为就是,他献了《请令诸公卿定议遣唐使进止状》,决定停止向中国派遣遣唐使。

Daozhen's only recorded political act was that he presented a petition for the ministers to decide to send envoys to China, and decided to stop sending envoys to China.


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《妖猫传》中的遣唐使

Envoys sent to Tang Dynasty in the biography of demon cat


四、被贬而死

4、 Demoted to death


9 世纪的日本正是藤原崛起和天皇争权的激烈时期,鹿死谁手尚不可知。为何宇多天皇极其重用一个 " 诗臣 ",其用意不乏和藤原大贵族争权。所以道真也就成了藤原家弄权路上的绊脚石。

In the 9th century, Japan was in a period of fierce competition for power between Fujiwara and the emperor. Why did emperor Yuduo use a "Minister of poetry" to fight for power with the great nobility of Fujiwara. So Daozhen has become a stumbling block for Fujiwara's power.


至醍醐天皇昌泰四年,道真就因藤原家的 " 莫须有 " 贬边疆九州太宰府,罪名是 " 有专权之心 " 和 " 欲废醍醐天皇 "。德川光圀说菅原被贬是藤原家的阴谋,就是说藤原时平 " 对重用菅原道真一事侧目已久 ",最终决定派遣爪牙除之。

In the fourth year of emperor Minmin's Changtai reign, Daozhen demoted the frontier Kyushu taizai Mansion because of the Fujiwara family's "no need", charged with "having the heart of dictatorship" and "wanting to abolish emperor Minmin". Tokugawa said that Kan yuan's demotion was a conspiracy of the Fujiwara family, that is to say, Fujiwara Shiping "has been looking at the matter of reusing Kan yuan Daozhen for a long time", and finally decided to send his followers to remove it.


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醍醐天皇

Emperor Daigo


此时藤原时平 29 岁,而道真 58 岁,一个老头被一个小年轻政治上玩倒,谁不气啊。虽然道真任职太宰府权帅,官位从二位,但九州远离平安朝廷京都,是贫民窟中的贫民窟,道真曾说他的太宰府官邸是 " 屋漏无盖板、架上湿衣裳、箧中损书简、况复厨儿诉、灶头爨烟断 "。且九州太宰府最大的任务就是防御来自大陆的入侵,可大陆除了元朝从来没打过日本,所以根本无事可做。

At this time, Fujiwara Shiping was 29 years old, while Daozhen was 58 years old. An old man was knocked down by a young man politically. Who was not angry. Although Daozhen was the commander-in-chief of taizai mansion, his official position was from two, but Kyushu was far away from the capital of Ping'an imperial court, which was a slum in the slums. Daozhen once said that his official residence of taizai mansion was "the house leaked without cover plate, wet clothes on the shelf, letters damaged in the suitcase, Kuang Fu's kitchen complained, and the stove was broken". Moreover, the biggest task of Kyushu taizai Prefecture is to defend against the invasion from the mainland, but the mainland has never attacked Japan except the Yuan Dynasty, so there is nothing to do.


在太宰府期间,道真的诗歌已经不是被贬赞岐时候的愁,而是恨,他曾写道 " 京国归何日,故园来几年 ",白首老人被贬苦寒,2 年之后郁郁而终,再也没回过繁华的京城。

During his stay in taizai Prefecture, Daozhen's poems were not the sorrow of being demoted to praise Qi, but the hatred. He once wrote "when will the capital return and how many years will the hometown come". The old man with white head was demoted to be bitter and cold, and died of depression two years later. He never went back to the prosperous capital.


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浮世绘 繁华的京都

Ukiyo painting prosperous Kyoto


文史君说

On Wen Shi Jun


道真死后 , 巨雷轰击了天皇的正殿清凉殿,造成宫中府中多人伤亡,死者之一就是陷害道真的藤原清贯。后来天皇、藤原家求神问道,得到了菅原道真无辜蒙冤,死后冤魂不散,聚而成灵,迟早要回来向皇家、藤原家索命的结论。

After the death of Daozhen, the huge thunder bombarded the main hall of the emperor, Qingliang hall, causing many casualties in the palace. One of the dead was Shigeru Fujiwara, who framed Daozhen. Later, the emperor and the Fujiwara family asked for help from God. They got the conclusion that Naoto Kan was innocent and unjust. After his death, the unjust spirits would not disperse, and they would come back to ask the royal family and the Fujiwara family for their lives sooner or later.


果不其然,3 个月后,醍醐天皇突然死亡,这下大家都相信道真是来索命的了。藤原氏赶紧想办法,不久就鼓动朝野将道真奉为神明,以香火贿赂道真,求道真放过自己,随后又在京都和九州太宰府建立了供奉道真为主神的天满宫。

Sure enough, three months later, Emperor Minmin died suddenly. Now we all believe that Tao really came to ask for his life. Fujiwara quickly tried to find a way, and soon encouraged the government and the public to worship Daozhen as a God. He bribed Daozhen with incense and begged Daozhen to let him go. Then he established Tianman palace in Kyoto and Kyushu taizai Prefecture, where Daozhen was the main God.


随着事态的平息,道真的恶神性质逐渐退散,他留下的作品又被人们广为传唱,他终于成了日本的文曲星、学问之神,成了考生考试前必拜之神,天满宫也就成了文庙。

As the situation subsided, the evil nature of Daozhen gradually faded away, and his works were widely sung by people. He finally became the star of Japanese Wenqu, the God of learning, the God that candidates must worship before the exam, and tianmangong became a Confucian temple.


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天满宫

Tianman Palace


参考文献

reference


高文汉:《论平安诗人菅原道真》,《日语学习与研究》2002 年第 4 期。

Gao Wenhan: on Daozhen Kan yuan, a poet of Ping'an, Japanese learning and research, No.4, 2002.


赵胜:《菅原道真应制诗研究》,青岛大学 2016 年硕士论文。

Zhao Sheng: a study of poems by Naoto Kan yuan, 2016 master's thesis of Qingdao University.


李晓东:《菅原道真贬谪诗歌研究》,青岛大学 2018 年硕士论文。

Li Xiaodong: Research on the relegated poetry of Naoto Kan yuan, master's thesis of Qingdao University in 2018.


(作者:浩然文史 · 紫橘)

(author: Haoran literature and history · Ziju)


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