Selected from Zhu Xi's list book in the Great Dictionary of cursive script


Looking at the Great Dictionary of list books compiled by Cheng tonggen, I found that many of the big words in the list books were written by Zhu Xi, which surprised me. Before that, I only knew that Zhu Xi was a great master of Neo Confucianism in the Song Dynasty of China, and his core idea was "to preserve heaven's reason and eliminate human desires".


What is the principle of heaven? Zhu Jia believes that the principle of heaven is the feudal social ethics such as monarch's benevolence, loyalty, father's kindness, son's filial piety, husband's singing and women's following. They are all gifted from human beings, which should be so and will never change.

什么是人欲呢?人欲就是人的耳、目、鼻、口、四肢的欲望,比如耳对于音乐、眼对于艳,鼻对于芳香,嘴对于变味,四肢对于安逸等。朱嘉又称这些欲望为“物欲”或“私欲”。他说:“比如夏天应穿葛衣, 冬天应穿裘衣,渴了要喝水,饿了要吃饭,这是理所应当的。但是葛衣-定要精细的,食物一定要精美的,这就是人欲了。” 有人问他:“饮食这类事,什么算是天理,什么算是人欲?”朱嘉说:“吃饭喝水, 这是天理,要求美味,这是人欲。

What is human desire? Human desire is the desire of people's ears, eyes, nose, mouth and limbs, such as ears for music, eyes for beauty, nose for fragrance, mouth for flavor change, limbs for ease, etc. Zhu Jia also called these desires "material desires" or "selfish desires". He said: "for example, you should wear Ge clothes in summer and Qiu clothes in winter. You should drink when you are thirsty and eat when you are hungry. But Ge Yi must be exquisite, and the food must be exquisite. This is human desire. " Someone asked him, "what is natural principle and what is human desire for food and drink?" Zhu Jia said, "it's natural principle to eat and drink water. It's human desire for delicious food.

朱嘉对天理人欲还有另外一种解释,他说:“对同一 件事,正确的做法就是天理,错误的做法就是人欲。”比如:视、听、音、动这是人们共同行为,对不合礼的就不看、不听、 不说、不做,这就是天理,反过来就是人欲。朱熹的这套思想其实就是继承了孔子的“克己复礼“的思想,只是把这一思想更加具体化和可操作了。

Zhu Jia has another explanation for the natural principle and human desire, he said: "for the same thing, the right way is natural principle, and the wrong way is human desire." For example, seeing, listening, listening and moving are common behaviors of people. If people do not see, listen to, say or do things that are not polite, this is natural law, and vice versa is human desire. In fact, Zhu Xi's thought inherits Confucius's thought of "restraining oneself and restoring propriety", but makes it more concrete and operable.



I first knew Zhu Jia by learning one of his poems


As soon as half an acre of fangtang is opened,


The sky is full of light, clouds and shadows.


How clear is the canal?


For a source of fresh water.


His poem was written in Wuzhi hall in Huangyan, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province. When I worked in Zhejiang Province, I was accompanied by Cheng Zengsheng, a local cultural celebrity, to see Wuzhi hall in Fangshan. I visited there and wrote Wuzhi hall after I came back.


Also in Taizhou, I saw a pamphlet "fading out of the nine peaks" written by Taizhou cultural celebrity Zhu Youdi There is an article in it about Zhu Xi's discord with his colleagues when he was studying politics in Taizhou. It is a big discount to Zhu Xi's impression.


Zhu Youdi said in "a dream of red and white peach blossoms - the personality of Yan Rui, a poetess."


"Tao is a pear flower, not a flower


Tao is apricot flower, not apricot flower


White and red,


Don't be the east wind.


Zeng Ji


People are slightly drunk in Wuling. "

这首词的作者严蕊,洪迈《夷坚志》庚卷第十记载:“台州官奴严蕊, 尤有才思,而通书究达今古。”周密《齐东野语》称她“善琴奕歌舞,丝竹书画,色艺冠一时。间作诗词,有新语,颇痛今。善逢迎。四方闻其名,有不远千里而登门者。”她的最妙的一首千古绝唱最后救了她的性命,她是个因才而兴因才而毁的人。野史《二刻拍案惊奇》里就写有她的故事。

Yan Rui, the author of this poem, recorded in volume 10 of Yi Jian Zhi written by Hong Mai: "Yan Rui, an official slave in Taizhou, is very talented and thoughtful, and the general book has reached the present and ancient times." Zhoumi's "Qi Dong Ye Yu" said that she was "good at singing and dancing, calligraphy and painting, and was a color art champion for a time. There are some new words in his poems, which are painful today. Good at flattery. When we hear about it, there are people who come from far away. " Her most wonderful song of all time saved her life in the end. She is a person who thrives because of her talent and destroys because of her talent. Her story is written in the unofficial history of "two moments of surprise".


I know all this from Zhu Youdi's articles.


In the Southern Song Dynasty, Yan Rui, an official slave in Taizhou, was quick witted and famous in the folk officialdom. Among his fans was Tang Zhongyou, the prefect of Taizhou at that time. He was a scholar with high talent and proud personality. In addition to official business, I often invite some colleagues to invite those officials and slaves to sing and dance.


一日,宴上看到一株桃花红白两开,于是倡议在座每,人以这桃花做诗- -首,诗里不能出现桃字。严蕊的词道是梨花不.....’就由此流传了 下来。此诗也更让唐大人看重了严姑娘的才华,两人以后的唱和也就多了起来。风流浪漫的官场才子,色艺双绝的红粉佳人在当时的官场圈内哄动一时。

One day, I saw a peach blossom in red and white at the banquet, so I proposed that everyone in this room should write a poem with the peach blossom. The word peach should not appear in the poem. Yan Rui's word is "pear flower no..." it has been handed down. This poem also made the Tang people pay more attention to miss Yan's talent, and their later harmony became more and more. Romantic officialdom talent, color and art double unique pink beauty in the officialdom circle at that time stir.

唐仲友有个同僚叫高文虎的,因嫉妒唐的才华,又恨他不让其分管实权,于是向当时刚调到台州任提举两浙东路常平茶盐公事朱嘉举报唐仲友作风不好。这以前,唐仲友曾和朋友们议论过朱嘉的理学禁锢死板,空洞误国。这本是-种文人相轻的表现,另外加上朱嘉到任上时唐仲友又没去迎迓。这朱老夫子接到举报又明查暗访一番 后连续六次上书弹劾唐仲友。

Tang Zhongyou had a colleague named Gao Wenhu, who was jealous of Tang's talent and hated that he would not let him take charge of real power. So he reported Tang Zhongyou's bad style to Zhu Jia, who was just transferred to Taizhou at that time. Before that, Tang Zhongyou and his friends had talked about Zhu Jia's Neo Confucianism, which was rigid, empty and harmful to the country. In addition, Tang Zhongyou didn't go to meet Zhu Jia when he took office. After receiving the report and making a secret investigation, Zhu laofuzi wrote to impeach Tang Zhongyou six times in a row.

为了抓到唐仲友作风不正的真凭实据,他下令黄岩通判抓捕了严蕊,关押了- -个多月,不惜动用酷刑。而严蕊始终供说与唐大人只是正常交往,没有苟且之事。最后官司打到宋孝宗那里,孝宗听了承相王淮的话“他们是“程学”,“苏学”之争。 孝宗将他们各打五十大板了了这段公案。而严蕊则被接任唐仲友的岳飞儿子岳霖判为脱籍返乡。

In order to find out the true evidence of Tang Zhongyou's improper work style, he ordered Huang Yan to arrest Yan Rui and detain him for more than a month, even if he used torture. But Yan Rui always confessed that he was only in normal contact with Lord Tang, and had nothing to do with it. Finally, the lawsuit was brought to song Xiaozong, who listened to Wang Huai's words: "they are Cheng Xue" and "Su Xue". Xiaozong beat each of them into 50 big cases. Yan Rui was sentenced to return home by Yue Lin, the son of Yue Fei who took over Tang Zhongyou.


When reviewing Yan Rui, Yue Lin asked her to write a poem in order to test the talent of the official slave who stirred up the government and the public. Yan Rui wrote:


It's not affected by the wind and dust, it seems to be mistaken by the leading edge.


When the flowers fall and bloom, they are always the king of laidong.


We must go and live!


If you have flowers all over your head, don't ask where you are going.


After seeing this, Yue Lin was deeply convinced and released in court.

现在看朱熹一生倡导的“存天理, 灭人欲”非礼“不看、不听、 不说、不做”这些观点, 这朱老先生是能干出”六次弹劾同事唐仲友",并"下令黄岩通判抓捕了严蕊,关押了一个多月,不惜动用酷刑的“。

Looking at Zhu Xi's life-long advocacy of "preserving justice, eliminating human desires" and "not seeing, not listening, not saying, not doing" these views, Mr. Zhu is capable of "impeaching Tang Zhongyou six times", and "ordering Huang Yan to arrest Yan Rui and detain him for more than a month without hesitating to use torture".


From then on, I have a bad impression of Zhu Xi. As a Confucian scholar, Zhu Jia should take benevolence and justice as the foundation and forgive as the bosom.


It is harmful to his reputation as a great Confucian scholar that he uses the mean means to extort a confession from a female artist, and then wants to overthrow her colleagues.



Today, I see that there are so many big characters of Zhu Jia collected in the Great Dictionary of bangshu, and I also see the evaluation of Zhu Jia's calligraphy by later generations

朱嘉善行、草,尤善大字,传世作品以行书简牍为主,大字墨迹很少。名重一时。 明陶宗仪《书史会要》云:“朱子继续道统、优入圣域,而于翰墨亦工。善行草,尤善大字,下笔即沉着典雅,虽片缣寸楮,人争珍秘。再查下朱熹的手书墨迹《千字文》,才知道《榜书大字典》里的朱嘉大字都是出自那里。

Zhu Jia is good at writing and writing, especially in big characters. His works handed down from generation to generation are mainly in running script and bamboo slips, but there are few big characters in ink. be a celebrity for a time. Tao Zongyi of the Ming Dynasty wrote in the book history meeting: "Zhu Zi continued to be orthodox and excellent in the holy land, and he also worked in calligraphy. Good at doing grass, especially good at big characters, the pen is calm and elegant, although the piece inch Chu, people contend for treasures. After looking up Zhu Xi's handwriting "Qian Zi Wen", we know that Zhu Jia's big characters in "bangshu dictionary" all came from there.


It seems that the evaluation of anyone should be comprehensive and fair, and should not have a preconceived impression.


As a famous Neo Confucianist, thinker, philosopher, educator and poet in Song Dynasty, a representative of Min school and a master of Confucianism, Shizun is known as Zhu Zi. Zhu Jia was the only one who was not Confucius's own disciple and was worshipped in the Confucius Temple. He was one of the twelve philosophers in Dacheng hall and was worshipped by Confucianism.


There must be something extraordinary about him to enjoy the Millennium incense of the Chinese royal people.


November 5, 2019


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2021-02-24 09:20:56
看来,评价任何人都要全面,公允,不应带有先入为主的印象。 作为宋朝著名的理学家、思想家、哲学家、教育家、诗人,闽学派的代表人物,儒学集大成者,世尊称为朱子。朱熹是唯一非孔子亲传弟子而享祀孔庙,位列大成殿十二哲者中,受儒教祭祀。能享受中国皇家百姓的千年香火,定有他的过人之处。

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